Researching a 20th-Century Military Ancestor Without a Service Record, Part 1

Posted on: May 25th, 2016 by
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In 1973 fire ravaged the National Personnel Records Center in the suburbs of St. Louis. Stored in the facility were millions of service records belonging to men and women who served in the armed forces of the United States. The fire destroyed an estimated 80 percent of the records of Army personnel discharged between November 1912 and January 1960–that’s 80 percent of the records of those who served in the U.S. Army during the first and second world wars! In addition, about 75 percent of Air Force records for personnel discharged between September 1947 and January 1964 with names occurring alphabetically after James E. Hubbard were lost.1 The loss of these records affected millions of veterans and family history researchers.

What if your family was one of the families affected by this loss? Should you give up on discovering your ancestors’ twentieth-century military service?
Not at all!

If your ancestor’s service and discharge fall into the time periods affected by the 1973 fire, a number of conditions may apply. First, the record may survive because it may not have been in the custody of the National Personnel Records center when the fire broke out. An undetermined number of files were outside the facility, in the custody of the Veterans Administration. These files were not affected by the fire and may have been returned to the NPRC, turned over to the National Archives, or remain with the VA. Second, many files damaged by the fire have been reconstructed, either from painstaking conservation of burned records, or from alternative record sources.2 Ordering the service record, even if you think it may have been burned, should always be your first step.

When you order a record, you will be asked for the name the veteran used during service, Social Security number, date and place of birth, details of service (branch, dates of entry/release, whether the service was officer or enlisted, service number), whether the veteran is deceased or retired. On the order form, be sure to check the items you want–DD 214 or equivalent, medical records, or other (e.g., complete personnel file, last/final pay voucher). You will also need to identify yourself and your relationship to the veteran. Anyone can order Official Military Personnel Files (OMPF) for veterans with discharge dates up to and including 1954. These are considered archival records and are available to the general public. If the veteran whose record you wish to order was discharged in 1955 or after, you will need to show that you are the veteran or next of kin (un-remarried spouse, child, parent, or sibling) of a deceased veteran. You will be required to show proof of death for a deceased veteran whose non-archival record you are requesting.3

If the response to your request shows that the veteran’s OMPF was indeed destroyed, you can search for substitute records: DD 214 and equivalents, last/final pay vouchers, or VA records.

  • DD 214 and equivalent records can often be found in family papers. Also check county courthouses. Discharged veterans often placed copies of their discharge records with county clerks to guard against loss or destruction, either in the county from which they entered the service, or in the county to which they moved after their discharge. If your veteran is deceased, check funeral home records for copies of discharge records. (The name of the undertaker should be listed on the veteran’s death certificate.) Many states offered bonus programs for veterans of the two world wars and subsequent conflicts. To obtain the bonuses, veterans had to provide specifics of their military service, often including discharge papers. Records of these bonus programs should be available in state archives; for some states, records are being digitized and may appear online.4
  • Last pay vouchers are often available for veterans from the NPRC or National Archives St. Louis. These vouchers often provide service numbers, enlistment dates and places, rank, military units/duty stations, decorations, and discharge information.5
  • To determine whether the Department of Veterans Affairs has information on your ancestor’s military service, contact your local VA office or county Veterans Affairs officer for help.

Don’t forget to search for newspaper references to your ancestor. Newspapers reported enlistments, leaves, transfers from one unit to another, discharges, even letters written to family members, in addition to battle wounds or deaths during service. Obituaries can also provide information on military service.

Once you know your veteran’s service, unit(s), rank, and dates of service, you can search for information in the records of the unit, a topic we’ll cover in our next blog post.

  1. The 1973 Fire, National Personnel Records Center,” National Archives at St. Louis ( : accessed 25 May 2016).
  2. Ibid. See also “Burned Records,” National Archives at St. Louis ( : accessed 25 May 2016).
  3. Request Your Military Service Records, Online, by Mail, or by Fax,” National Archives ( : accessed 25 May 2016).
  4. See, for example, “Pennsylvania, Veteran Compensation Application Files, WWII, 1960-1966,” Ancestry ( : accessed 25 May 2016).
  5. See Kathleen Brandt, “Your Ancestor’s Military Records were Destroyed? What to Do?,” blog entry dated 4 August 2011, ( : accessed 25 May 2016), for an illustration of a pay voucher.
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The Power of Dormancy

Posted on: February 19th, 2016 by
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Never believe that something will never happen when it doesn’t happen right away!

I just received an email message from a distant cousin I had never met, sent in response to a letter I wrote to another distant cousin I had never met. Commendable, but not very remarkable–until you realize that I sent the letter to the first cousin ten years ago.

I wrote to the first cousin to inquire about the existence of a Trewren family Bible my mother believed might have been in the possession of the mother of the cousin who just emailed. Naturally, my mother had lost the contact information of the cousin whose mother might have had the Bible. Through newspaper sleuthing I was able to identify and locate contact information for the cousin I wrote the letter to.

Apparently what happened is that the cousin to whom I wrote the letter, in turn, wrote to the cousin who just emailed. The emailing cousin put the letter aside, as we all do, intending to respond. Ten years passed. Then two amazing things happened: she rediscovered the letter, and she contacted me.

Now, after a lapse of ten years, I’m going to contact the first cousin again.

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Ancestry’s Family Tree Maker Announcement: The Sky is Not Falling

Posted on: December 10th, 2015 by
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Yesterday announced that it will no longer sell its popular Family Tree Maker software,1 and the Internet lit up. Genealogists everywhere began blasting Ancestry’s decision and wringing their hands about what to do.

Amid the chaos bloggers began to speak up. Among the first was Dave McDonald, who commented, “Newsflash: the loss of one program isn’t going to bring your genealogical research work to a screeching halt.”2

Judy G. Russell, the Legal Genealogist, and Thomas MacEntee followed up today. Judy’s post, called “Check Our the Alternatives”3 pointed out two Family Tree Maker competitors–Legacy 8.0 and RootsMagic 7–that are already providing information on their products and how Family Tree Maker users can transition.

Thomas took a slightly different tack, pointing out that “Genealogy is all about change,” and relating Ancestry’s apparent move away from selling desktop software to overall technology trends toward web-only subscriptions.4

Last but not least, Kerry Scott weighed in with her usual blend of humor and common sense: “In the grand scheme of things, having a year’s notice that your genealogy software program will change is probably not the worst thing that could happen to us.”5

My own reaction: this is a great opportunity for Family Tree Maker users to assess what they want family tree software to do and examine their options. Here are some key questions for database software users:

  1. What did you want to do with the information you are storing in Family Tree Maker? For example, organize data about individuals, keep track of sources? Provide tools for analyzing data, generate and print reports, create charts?
  2. Has what you want to do changed since you chose Family Tree Maker?
  3. Is a desktop database the best option for doing what you want to do?
  4. Can you do what you want to do without a desktop database?
  5. Do one or more of Family Tree Maker’s competitors do what you want to do better?

At this point, you have a year to consider your answers to these questions.

My answers are

  1. Organize data and keep track of sources, print simple reports, generate charts.
  2. I have never been a committed Family Tree User.
  3. Not necessarily. Most of what I want to do can be done using a combination of an online tree (I use a private tree on Ancestry), Word documents, and Excel spreadsheets.
  4. See answer 3.
  5. In the native Mac universe, in my opinion, Family Tree Maker trails its competitors Reunion, Heredis, and MacFamilyTree 7 in generating reports and charts.

So the sky is not falling after all.

  1. Kendall Julet, “Ancestry to Retire Family Tree Maker Software,” Ancestry blog, posted 8 December 2015 ( : accessed 8 December 2015).
  2. Dave McDonald, “Databases and Software,” Thinking Genealogically blog, posted 8 December 2015 ( : accessed 8 December 2015).
  3. Judy G. Russell, “Check Out the Alternatives,” The Legal Genealogist blog, posted 9 December 2015 ( : accessed 9 December 2015).
  4. Thomas MacEntee, “Blame the Millennials: the End of Family Tree Maker Genealogy Software,” GeneaBloggers blog, posted 9 December 2015 ( : accessed 9 December 2015).
  5. Kerry Scott, “Santa Claus Signs Agreement with to Ruin Christmas,” Clue Wagon blog, posted 9 December 2015 ( : accessed 9 December 2015).
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